By Robert Cohen Text Only


THE MILK CONTROVERSY

     The milk controversy has heated up as a result of the recent Canadian rejection of MONSANTO'S application for the genetically engineered growth hormone, rbST. That hormone was NOT approved in Canada because HEALTH CANADA, Canada's equivalent regulatory agency to America's FDA, determined that rbST might prove to be unsafe for dairy cows. Previous to the official denial, Canadian scientists noted that laboratory animals suffered a vast array of biological effects from this hormone, and questioned the lack of integrity by FDA and MONSANTO who ignored this TRUTH. These data from the KEY study were clearly not reviewed by FDA. The results of that study (Richard, Odaglia and Deslex, 1989) had to have been known to MONSANTO and American regulators.

     FDA now has information indicating that data were manipulated and withheld from peer review. Most critically important is an indication that IGF in milk is absorbed intact, exerting powerful growth effects on the human body. Should there be a cancer present in a human system, that too would be greatly influenced by this growth hormone.

A LIST OF HORMONES IN MILK

     MILK, long thought to be a wholesome food for children, actually contains powerful growth hormones.

     Endocrinologist Clark Grosvenor published a review of the known hormones and growth factors in milk ("Hormones and Growth Factors in Milk," Endocrine Reviews, volume 14, number 6, 1992). Each sip of cow's milk includes pituitary, hypothalamic, pancreatic, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, gonadal, and gut hormones. The list does not include other important milk factors such as prostaglandins and neuropeptides. The milk in your morning cereal still appears to be white and pure, but what follows is a list of bioactive substances in milk taken from Table One of Grosvenor's paper:

PITUITARY HORMONES (PRL, GH, TSH, FSH, LH, ACTH Oxytocin)

STEROID HORMONES (Estradiol, Estriol, Progesterone, Testosterone, 17-Ketosteroids, Corticosterone, Vitamin D)

HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES (TRH, LHRH, Somatostatin, PRL- inhibiting factor, PRL- releasing factor, GnRH, GRH)

GASTROINTESTINAL PEPTIDES (Vasoactive intestinal peptide, Bombesin, Cholecystokinin,Gastrin, Gastrin inhibitory peptide, Pancreatic peptide,Y peptide, Substance P, Neurotensin)

IGF AND CANCER - THE SCIENCE

     Critics of the Dairy Education Board claim that there is NO REAL SCIENCE behind the IGF-I CANCER CLAIM. The actual science exploding that contention appears in highly regarded scientific journals including the American, Japanese, British, European and International Journals of Cancer. In addition, there are important papers published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology, Journal of Cellular Physiology and American Journal of Clinical Pathology. The "smoking gun" is an autopsy study that appeared in the New York Times. That study revealed that cancers, particularly BREAST CANCERS, are actually quite common and appear at a SHOCKINGLY young age.

CANCER AND IGF-I

     IGF-I has been identified as an autocrine and endocrine growth regulator that ACCELERATES various types of cancer. IGF-I is considered to play a key role in the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells, according to Gillespie.

(J. Gillespie, et al. "Inhibition of pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro by the tyrphostin group of tyrosine kinase inhibitors." Academic Surgical Unit, St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK. Br.-J-Cancer, December, 1993, 68(6), pp. 1122-1126.)

     Glick noted that IGFs play a considerable role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in central nervous system tumors.

(R.P. Glick, et al. "Identification of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and glucose transporter-I and -3 mRNA in CNS tumors." Department of Neurology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Cook County Hospital. Regul-Pept., October, 20,1993, 48(1-2), pp. 251-256.)

     Atiq reported that IGF is associated with human colorectal tumors and colon cancer growth.

(Atiq, et al. "Alterations in serum levels of insulin-like growth factors and insulin-like growth-factor-binding proteins in patients with colorectal cancer." Labor d'Immunologie, Faculte de Medecin, Marseille, France. Int-J-Cancer, May 15, 1994, 57(4), pp. 491-497.)

     Yashiro found that IGF-I activity was significantly higher in cancer extracts, suggesting that higher IGF-I activity in cancer tissue is involved in regulating growth of thyroid cancer cells.

(T. Yashiro, et al. "Increased activity of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein in human thyroid papillary cancer tissue." Department of Sirgery, Tsukuba University, Ibaraki, Japan. Jpn-J-Cancer-Res., January, 1994, 85(1), pp. 46-52.)

     Robbins found that IGF-I increased lymphocyte numbers in every lymphoid organ examined. This increase had functional significance, and this scientist concluded that IGF-I produced locally by bone marrow cells was a key component of lymphatic cancer.

(K. Robbins, et al. "Immunological effects of insulin-like growth factor-enhancement of immunoglobulin synthesid." Department of Immunology, Genetech, Inc., South San Francisco, California. Clin-Exp-Immunol., February, 1994, 95(2), pp. 337-342.)

     Yun demonstrated that IGF hormones were 32-64 times more abundant in Wilms tumors than in the adjacent uninvolved kidneys.

(K. Yun, et al. "Insulin-like growth factor II messenger ribonucleic acid expression in Wilms tumor, nephrogenic rest, and kidney." Department of Pathology, University of Otago Medical School, Dunedin, New Zealand. Lab-Invest., November, 1993, 69(5), pp. 603-615.)

     Minniti concluded that insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) acts as an autocrine growth and motility factor in human sarcoma cell lines. Analyses of tumor biopsy specimens demonstrate high levels of IGF RNA expression. All tumor specimens examined expressed the gene for IGF, and this expression was localized to the tumor cells.

(C.P. Minniti, et al. "Specific expression of insulin-like growth factor-II in rhabdomyosarcoma tumor cells." Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Am-J-Clin-Pathol., February, 1994, 101(2), pp. 198-203.)

     Developing childhood bone cancers were researched by Kappel who wrote that this type of cancer typically occurs during adolescent growth spurts when growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) may be at their highest lifetime levels. He noted that human bone cancer cell lines are dependent on signaling through IGF-I receptors for survival and proliferation.

(C.C. Kappel, et al. "Human osteosarcoma cell lines are dependent on insulin-like growth factor I for in vitro growth." Molecular Oncology Section, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland. Cancer-Res., May 15, 1994, 54(10), pp. 2803-2807.)

     Lippman, as early as 1991, had implicated IGF-I as being critically involved in the aberrant growth of human breast cancer cells.

(M. Lippman. "Growth factors, receptors and breast cancers." (IGF-I and related growth factors are critically involved in aberrant growth of human breast cancer cells.) J. Natl. Inst. Health Res., 1991, 3, pp. 59-62.)

     Lee observed the processing of insulin-like growth factor by human breast tissue and indicated that estrogen regulation of IGF-I in breast cancer cells would support the hypothesis that IGF-I has a regulatory function in breast cancer.

(A.V. Lee, et al. "Processing of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) by human breast cancer cells." Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Breast Biology Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK. Mol-Cell- Endocrinol., March, 99(2), pp. 211-220.)

     Chen noted that IGFs are potent growth factors for cellular proliferation in the human breast carcinoma cell line.

(J.C. Chen, et al. "Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein enhancement of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)-mediated DNA synthesis and IGF-I binding in human breast carcinoma cell line." Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. J-Cell-Physiol., January, 1994, 158(1), pp. 69-78.)

     Figueroa confirmed that insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are key factors for breast cancer growth.

(J.A. Figueroa, et al. "Recombinant insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 inhibits IGF-I serum, and estrogen-dependent growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells." Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas. J-Cell-Physiol., November, 1993, 157(2), pp. 229- 236.)

     Li treated breast cancer cells with IGF-I and observed a 10-fold increase in RNA levels of cancer cells and concluded that IGF-I appears to be an important step in cellular proliferation.

(X.S. Li, et al. "Retinoic acid inhibition of insulin-like growth factor I stimulation of c-fos mRNA levels in breast carcinoma cell lines." Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. Exp-Cell-Res., March, 1994, 211(1), pp. 68-73.)

     Krasnick furnishes another clue to this puzzle by revealing that IGF-I plays a role in the regulation of human ovarian cancer. His data suggest that IGF-I and estrogen interact in a synergistic manner and regulate the growth of cancer.

(A. Krasnick, et al. "Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF) and IGF-binding protein-2 are increased in cyst fluids of epithelial ovarian cancer." Institute of Endocrinolgy, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel. J-Clin-Endocrinol-Metab, February, 1994, 78(2).)

     Musgrove states that growth factors play a major role in human breast cancer cell growth.

(E.A. Musgrove, et al. "Acute effects of growth factors on T-47D breast cancer cell cycle progression." Cancer Biology Division, Garvan Institute for Medical Research, St. Vincent's Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia. Eur-J-Cancer, 29A (16), 1993, pp. 2273-2279.)

THE MISSING LINK

     On November 8, 1994, the New York Times published a story which revealed two very critical facts.

(Gina Kolata, New York Times, Science Section, Nov. 8, 1994, p. C1.)


     Although only 1 percent of women between the ages of 40 and 50 are diagnosed with breast cancer, autopsy studies reveal that 39 percent of women in that age group have breast cancer.

     Although only 1 percent of men between the ages of 60 and 70 are clinically diagnosed with prostate cancer, 46 percent actually have prostate gland tumors. Gina Kolata. "New ability Find Earliest Cancers: A Mixed Blessing?"

SUMMARY

     IGF-I is the key factor in cancer's growth in the human body. IGF-I is identical between humans and cows. Milk is a hormonal delivery system and IGF-I is orally active, surviving digestive processes. If you believe that breastfeeding mothers deliver substances to their infants, you then should understand that milk is a hormonal delivery system. Lactoferins, immunoglobulins and protein hormones survive digestion and exert powerful growth effects. Cancer is very common, but usually controlled by the human body. Cancerous tumors are the ones that have somehow thrown off the usually tight genetic controls on unwanted growth.

Robert Cohen (1-201-871-5871)